My Hope for Having Children: A True Story of Love, Sacrifice, Faith, Courage and Hope
For example, is there a biological component associated with hope? I could not find any theorists who study hope who supported a biological model of hope. In fact, James Averill states “hope is not associated with any specific physiological responses or reflex-like actions” (Averill et al, 1990).
How about hope being a learned component? Actually hope appears to be a primarily learned concept. In a series of studies done by Averill, et al (1990), Averill and his colleagues came to the conclusion that hope includes learned behaviors and thought processes that are acquired through the socialization process. This was demonstrated in a study of the implicit theories of hope as reflected in 108 metaphors, maxims, and proverbs related to hope that are common in many cultures. These findings support the theory that hope is a culturally determined concept and is implicitly acquired by children during the language acquisition process. Additionally there is a strong religious component to hope. Many Christian religions are built on hope and models of hope are implicitly taught in religious teachings.
Lastly, is there a cognitive component to hope? Yes, there is, but only in the restoration and maintenance of hope – not in the actual acquisition of hope. Many studies have shown that cognitive strategies such as positive self-talk, reading uplifting books, envisioning hopeful images, listening to uplifting music, and lightheartedness (humor and laughter) are used by hopeful persons when suffering some “crisis” or adverse life event (Farran, 1995).